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. 2011 Nov 21;2:79.
doi: 10.3389/fpls.2011.00079. eCollection 2011.

The bZIP Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA: A Multifunctional Hub for Meristem Control

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Free PMC article

The bZIP Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA: A Multifunctional Hub for Meristem Control

Annette T Maier et al. Front Plant Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. Since plants grow and initiate new organs continuously, they have to modulate the underlying developmental program accordingly to cope with this challenge. At the heart of this extraordinary developmental plasticity are pluripotent stem cells, which are maintained during the entire life-cycle of the plant and that are embedded within dynamic stem cell niches. While the complex regulatory principles of plant stem cell control under artificial constant growth conditions begin to emerge, virtually nothing is known about how this circuit adapts to variations in the environment. In addition to the local feedback system constituted by the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA signaling cascade in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN) not only has a broader expression domain in SAM and flowers, but also carries out more diverse functions in meristem maintenance: pan mutants show alterations in environmental response, shoot meristem size, floral organ number, and exhibit severe defects in termination of floral stem cells in an environment dependent fashion. Genetic and genomic analyses indicate that PAN interacts with a plethora of developmental pathways including light, plant hormone, and meristem control systems, suggesting that PAN is as an important regulatory node in the network of plant stem cell control.

Keywords: Arabidopsis; PERIANTHIA; SHOOTMERISTEMLESS; auxin; cytokinin; meristem regulation; stem cells; type-A ARR.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Vegetative phenotypes in response to environmental conditions (A–F). Phenotype of wild-type (A–C) and pan mutant (D–F) plants grown under short-day [SD (A,D)], long-day [LD (B,E)], and continuous light [CL (C,F)] conditions for 21 days. Note leaf-curling, elongated petioles and twisted leaf rosettes under LD and CL conditions.
Figure 2
Figure 2
mRNA-expression patterns of PAN and SAM regulators WUS, CLV3, STM. In situ hybridizations were used to analyze PAN mRNA-expression patterns. (A–D) Serial longitudinal sections of wild-type inflorescence apices after 25 days of growth LD. (E–L) Serial cross sections of a vegetative apex grown in 23 days in SD. PAN mRNA shows varying expression with a local maximum in a ring domain around the central zone. PAN expression is reduced in newly arising organ primordia [P3-P0, see arrowhead in (H)]. Expression patterns of PAN, WUS, CLV3, and STM in inflorescence apices of wild-type (I–L) and pan mutant plants (M–P). PAN (I,M), WUS (J,N), CLV3 (K,O), and STM (L,P). PAN mRNA-expression in vegetative tissues of wild-type (Q) and wus mutants (R). PAN expression in wild-type (S) and ring-like expression in enlarged floral tissues on clv3 mutant (T).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Genetic interactions of PAN with CLV3, WUS, and STM. (A) From left to right the following genotypes are shown: wild-type, clv3, pan clv3, and pan. Top views of inflorescence apices of wild-type (B), clv3 (C), pan clv3 (D), and pan (E) inflorescences. (F) Two wus mutant plants (left) are shown in comparison to two pan wus double mutants (right). Note the inhibition of shoot outgrowth in the double mutant. At later developmental stages a reduced number of shoots grows at a slow rate. (G) Two stm mutants (left) and two pan stm double mutant plants (right). Note the elevated number of shoots and branches, as well as floral buds in the pan stm double mutant.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Gene Ontology analysis of biological functions for genes with increased expression in pan mutant inflorescence apices. Significantly enriched GO categories are shown in yellow, orange, and red.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Genetic interaction of PAN with GI. Plants grown for 25 day under LD are shown.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Gene Ontology analysis for biological function for genes with reduced expression in pan mutant inflorescence apices. Significantly enriched GO categories are shown in yellow, orange, and red.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Gene Ontology analysis for molecular function for genes with reduced expression in pan mutant inflorescence apices. Significantly enriched GO categories are shown in yellow, orange, and red.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Genetic interaction of PAN with Cytokinin Signaling Components ARR7, ARR15, and CLV3. Ten-days-old soil grown seedlings of wild-type (A) and pan (B), clv3 (C), arr15 (D), arr7 (E) pan clv37 (F), pan arr7 (G), pan arr15 (H), pan arr15 clv3 (I), and arr7 arr15 (J) mutant plants. All plants were grown under LD and representative seedlings are shown.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Genetic interaction of PAN with PIN1. Primary shoot of pin1 mutant (A) and pan pin1 double mutant (B) and whole plant comparison (C) of pin1 (left) and pan pin1 (right) showing increased development of floral buds on the primary shoot of the pan pin1 double mutant.

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