A Case of Relapsing-Remitting Neuroborreliosis? Challenges in the Differential Diagnosis of Recurrent Myelitis

Case Rep Neurol. 2012 Jan;4(1):47-53. doi: 10.1159/000337223. Epub 2012 Mar 14.


We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with 4 episodes of myelitis with pleocytosis, a positive Borrelia burgdorferi serology with positive antibody indices, and full recovery each time after antibiotic and steroid treatment, suggesting neuroborreliosis. We nevertheless believe that recurrent neuroborreliosis is improbable based on the levels of the chemokine CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid and favor the diagnosis of post-infectious autoimmune-mediated transverse myelitis possibly triggered by an initial neuroborreliosis as the cause of the relapses observed in our patient. We demonstrate the diagnostic steps and procedures which were important in the differential diagnosis of this unusual and challenging case.

Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; CXCL13; Cerebrospinal fluid; Lyme borreliosis; Myelitis; Neuroborreliosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports