Low Carbohydrate Diet in Type 1 Diabetes, Long-Term Improvement and Adherence: A Clinical Audit

Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012 May 31;4(1):23. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-4-23.

Abstract

Background: Reduction of dietary carbohydrates and corresponding insulin doses stabilizes and lowers mean blood glucose in individuals with type 1 diabetes within days. The long-term adherence for persons who have learned this technique is unknown. To assess adherence over 4 years in such a group the present audit was done retrospectively by record analysis for individuals who have attended an educational course. Adherence was assessed from HbA1c changes and individuals' own reports.

Findings: Altogether 48 persons with diabetes duration of 24 ± 12 years and HbA1c > = 6.1% (Mono-S; DCCT = 7.1%) attended the course. Mean HbA1c for all attendees was at start, at 3 months and 4 years 7.6% ± 1.0%, 6.3 ± 0.7%, 6.9 ± 1.0% respectively. The number of non-adherent persons was 25 (52%). HbA1c in this group was at start, at 3 months and 4 years: 7.5 ±1.1%, 6.5 ± 0.8%, 7.4 ± 0.9%. In the group of 23 (48%) adherent persons mean HbA1c was at start, at 3 months and 4 years 7.7 ± 1.0%, 6.4 ± 0.9%, 6.4 ± 0.8%.

Conclusion: Attending an educational course on dietary carbohydrate reduction and corresponding insulin reduction in type 1 diabetes gave lasting improvement. About half of the individuals adhered to the program after 4 years. The method may be useful in informed and motivated persons with type 1 diabetes. The number needed to treat to have lasting effect in 1 was 2.