Comparative evaluation of the remineralising effects and surface microhardness of glass ionomer cement containing grape seed extract and casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate: an in vitro study

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2012 Jun;13(3):138-43. doi: 10.1007/BF03262860.


Aim: To evaluate and compare in vitro the remineralising effects and surface microhardness of glass ionomer cement (GIC), GIC containing grape seed extract and GIC containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP).

Methods: An in vitro study with 45 mandibular premolars with standardised class V cavities prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces. Artificial caries-like lesions were created and teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Each tooth was sectioned longitudinally into buccal and lingual halves; lingual half was used as control and the other as the test specimen. Axial longitudinal sections of the control specimens were analysed under polarised light microscopy. The experimental halves were restored with 3 materials. Group I: glass ionomer cement (GIC), Group II: 10% (w/w) grape seed extract and GIC (GSGIC), Group III: 10% (w/w) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (Recaldent) and GIC (CPPGIC). The restored tooth specimens were exposed to pH cycling for 28 days and analysed again for remineralisation under polarised microscopy. For the second part of the study, 60 cylindrical specimens (20 each) were made using standardised brass moulds and the three experimental materials. The specimens were immersed individually in de-ionised water. After 7 days of immersion, 10 specimens from each group were subjected to microhardness measurements and repeated on the remaining specimens at the end of 30 days.

Statistics: One way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis.

Results: CPPGIC showed the greatest remineralisation followed by GSGIC and least for GIC. Comparisons of microhardness between the three groups were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Grape seed extract and CPPACP can be used for remineralisation of damaged dentine and their incorporation into GIC does not compromise the microhardness properties significantly.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Bicuspid / drug effects
  • Bicuspid / pathology
  • Cariostatic Agents / chemistry
  • Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Caseins / chemistry
  • Caseins / therapeutic use*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / methods
  • Dentin / drug effects
  • Dentin / pathology
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry*
  • Grape Seed Extract / chemistry
  • Grape Seed Extract / therapeutic use*
  • Hardness
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Polarization
  • Surface Properties
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Tooth Demineralization / pathology
  • Tooth Demineralization / therapy
  • Tooth Remineralization / methods*
  • Water / chemistry


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Caseins
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex
  • Water