Sensitivity of human strains of Oxalobacter formigenes to commonly prescribed antibiotics

Urology. 2012 Jun;79(6):1286-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2011.11.017.


Objective: To determine the sensitivity of 4 strains of Oxalobacter formigenes (Oxf) found in humans--HC1, Va3, CC13, and OxK--to varying concentrations of commonly prescribed antibiotics. Oxf gut colonization has been associated with a decreased risk of forming recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stones.

Methods: For each strain and each antibiotic concentration, 100 μL of an overnight culture and 100 μL of the appropriate antibiotic were added to a 7-mL vial of oxalate culture medium containing 20 mM oxalate. On the fourth day, vials were visually examined for growth, and a calcium oxalate precipitation test was performed to determine whether Oxf grew in the presence of the antibiotic.

Results: All 4 Oxf strains were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, and vancomycin, and they were all sensitive to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. One strain, CC13, was resistant to nitrofurantoin, and the others were sensitive. Differences in minimum inhibitory concentration between strains were demonstrated.

Conclusion: Four human strains of Oxf are sensitive to a number of antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice; however, minimum inhibitory concentrations differ between strains.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Oxalobacter formigenes / classification
  • Oxalobacter formigenes / drug effects*
  • Oxalobacter formigenes / isolation & purification
  • Urinary Calculi


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents