Thirty type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic children were treated from diagnosis onwards in a random order (using a table of random permutations) with either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy (CSII), or with conventional injection therapy (CT). After two years of therapy psychosocial measurements were obtained of fifteen CSII children (8 boys, 7 girls; mean age: 12+/-4 years) and thirteen CT children (6 boys, 7 girls; mean age: 10+/-4 years) and their parents. Two families of the CT group refused to participate. The examination consisted of six tests (for the children: junior dutch personality test, WISC-R intelligence test, family relation test, diabetes questionnaire; for the parents: family interaction scale and assessment of acceptance scale). Parents (and pediatricians) rated CSII children higher on compliance and better on metabolic control. Acceptance of diabetes, physical and psychological condition was rated equally by parents and doctors. Except for the diabetes questionnaire, the children of the two groups scored not significantly different. The CSII group expressed significantly less physical complaints and physical restrictions. CSII children showed a tendency to score higher on recalcitrance compared with CT children. How adequate this coping of CSII children may be, is discussed.