There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a meta-analysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, -2.629, confidence interval (CI), -3.914 to -1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, -1.112, CI, -1.692 to -0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, -3.422, CI, -5.032 to -1.812, P < 0.001).
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