Background: Mutations in the KRT6A or KRT16 gene cause pachyonychia congenita type 1 (PC-1), while mutations in KRT16 or KRT6C underlie focal palmoplantar keratoderma (FPPK). A new classification system of PC has been adopted based on the mutated gene. PC rarely presents the symptoms of diffuse plantar keratoderma. Mutation in the tail domain of keratins is rarely reported. PC combined with fissured tongue has never been described.
Objectives: To investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations between clinical features and gene mutational sites in two unrelated southern Chinese PC pedigrees (one family presented with specific fissured tongue, the other with diffuse plantar keratoderma).
Materials & methods: The whole coding regions of the KRT6A/KRT16/KRT17/KRT6B genes were amplified and directly sequenced to detect the mutation. To confirm the effect of the IVS8-2A>C mutation in KRT6A at the mRNA level, total RNA from the plantar lesion of a patient was extracted and reverse-transcribed to cDNA for sequence analysis.
Results: Two novel de novo mutations, a splice acceptor site variant IVS8-2A>C (p.S487FfsX72) in KRT6A and a heterozygous substitution c.AA373_374GG (p.N125G) within exon 1 of KRT16, were found separately in the two PC families.
Conclusion: Genotype-phenotype correlations among PC patients with codon-125 mutation in KRT16 were established, while the phenotypes caused by the IVS8-2A>C mutation in KRT6A need further studies to confirm the rare feature of fissured tongue.