Enhancing the efficacy of treatment for temporomandibular patients with muscular diagnosis through cognitive-behavioral intervention, including hypnosis: a randomized study

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012 Jan;113(1):81-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.08.020. Epub 2012 Feb 3.


Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), including hypnosis, in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) with muscular diagnosis.

Study design: Seventy-two patients (65 women and 7 men with an average age of 39 years) were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, and assigned to the experimental group (n = 41), receiving the 6-session CBT program, and the control group (n = 31). All patients received conservative standard treatment for TMD. The assessment included pain variables and psychologic distress.

Results: There were significant differences between the groups, the experimental group showing a higher improvement in the variables evaluated. Specifically, 90% of the patients under CBT reported a significant reduction in frequency of pain and 70% in emotional distress. The improvement was stable over time, with no significant differences between posttreatment and 9-month follow-up.

Conclusions: CBT, including hypnosis, significantly improved conservative standard treatment outcome in TMD patients.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Chronic Pain / etiology
  • Chronic Pain / therapy
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Facial Pain / etiology
  • Facial Pain / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnosis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Relaxation Therapy
  • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome / complications
  • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult