Short-term low carbohydrate/high-fat diet intake increases postprandial plasma glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy men

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;66(8):926-31. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.58. Epub 2012 Jun 6.


Background/objectives: Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risks of development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 3-day low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LC/HFD) alters postprandial plasma glucose and incretin levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy men.

Subjects/methods: Nine healthy young men (age (mean ± s.e.), 27 ± 1 years; body mass index, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2)) consumed either a normal diet (ND: energy from ∼22% fat) or a LC/HFD (energy from ∼69% fat) for 3 days each. The total energy intake from each diet was similar. An OGTT was performed after each 3-day dietary intervention. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were determined at rest and during the OGTT.

Results: Plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve during the OGTT were significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P=0.024). In addition, increase in GLP-1 levels was significantly higher in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P=0.025). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in the LC/HFD trial than in the ND trial (P<0.041).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that even short-term LC/HFD increased postprandial plasma glucose and GLP-1 levels in healthy young men. A decrease in first-phase insulin secretion may partially contribute to the short-term LC/HFD-induced increase in postprandial plasma glucose levels.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Male
  • Motor Activity
  • Postprandial Period / drug effects*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1