Entamoeba histolytica required CO2 for growth in axenic culture while growth was inhibited by H2. The organism was tolerant to 5% O2 in the gas phase and it was able to detoxify products of O2 reduction in the medium. The ameba did not require a negative oxidation-reduction potential for axenic growth. However, little or no free O2 was present in media exposed to 5% O2 in the gas phase. Growth was improved by adding yeast extract to the medium.