Prospective analysis of factors related to migraine aura--the PAMINA study

Headache. 2012 Sep;52(8):1236-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02166.x. Epub 2012 Jun 1.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine factors increasing and decreasing the risk of occurrence of migraine aura and of headache and migraine not associated with aura (HoA, MoA) prospectively by means of a daily diary.

Methods: Of 327 patients with migraine completing a comprehensive diary up to 90 days, we selected all patients who recorded at least 1 episode of migraine aura. To find risk indicators and triggers of aura, HoA, and MoA, we analyzed 56 variables and calculated univariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed models.

Results: Fifty-four patients recorded a total of 4562 patient days including 354 days with migraine aura. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of aura was statistically significantly increased by smoking, menstruation, and hunger, and it was decreased by holidays and days off. The risk of HoA and/or MoA was increased during menstruation, by psychic tension, tiredness, and odors, and it was decreased by smoking.

Conclusion: Menstruation is the most prominent factor increasing the risk of aura as well as that of HoA and MoA. Smoking shows the most striking difference increasing the risk of aura, but decreasing the risk of HoA and MoA.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hunger*
  • Male
  • Menstruation*
  • Middle Aged
  • Migraine with Aura / etiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking*