Application of 3-Dimensional Homology Modeling of Cytochrome P450 2B1 for Interpretation of Site-Directed Mutagenesis Results

J Biomol Struct Dyn. 1994 Aug;12(1):61-78. doi: 10.1080/07391102.1994.10508088.

Abstract

Abstract Three-dimensional structures of cytochrome P450 2B1 were modeled based on the crystallographic structure of P450(cam). The effect of the alignment, loop choice, and minimization with or without water was assessed. Although final models were similar in overall structure, the identity of active site residues depended upon the alignment. An example is Phe-206, which may or may not form part of the active site. The choice of the loop conformation had a lesser effect, while including water in the final minimization step was essential for preserving the shape and size of the active site. The best model (model 2) was in good agreement with the data from site-directed mutagenesis studies, and correctly predicted the effect of substitutions at 9 out of 10 amino acid positions. Thus, residues important for P450 2B1 activity, such as Ile- 114, Phe-206, Ile-290, Thr-302, Val-363, and Gly-478, constitute part of the active site and are able to interact with the substrate androstenedione through hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, Ser-303, Ser-360 and Lys-473 are far from the active site and/or cannot interact with the substrate, in agreement with experimental data. The model indicates other residues likely to be important for enzyme function, such as Tyr- 111, Leu-209, Ile-477, and Ile- 480, which can be tested experimentally. The substrate may assume numerous binding orientations consistent with observed patterns of hydroxylation at C(5) and C(6). The replacement in the model of certain amino acid residues to mimic residue substitutions from site-directed mutagenesis studies and docking of the substrate into the modified active site allowed a plausible explanation for alterations in regio- and stereospecificities of some mutants of P450 2B1, such as Gly-478 → Ala or Val-363 Ala.