We have tested a sample of 154 unrelated males from Lviv region (Ukraine) for 11 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci (DYS19, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA_H4.1). Haplotype and haplogroup diversity values were calculated for the population under study. Genetic distances (R(ST)) to 9 other Slavic populations were calculated based on 12 Y-STR loci. Haplotype frequencies and MDS plots were constructed based on genetic distances. Haplogroup frequency patterns revealed in Ukraine are similar to those characteristic of other European populations. However, it also allowed for identification a specific genetic component in Ukrainian sample which seems to originate from areas dwelled by Western Slavs, i.e. subhaplogroup R1a1a7, at frequency of 13.65%. Analysis of R(ST) distances and AMOVA revealed high level of heterogeneity between Slavic populations inhabiting the south and north part of Europe, determined geographically rather than by linguistic factors. It has also been found a closer similarity (in the values of R(ST)) between Ukrainian and Slovak populations than between Ukrainians and other Slavic population samples.
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