The human Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 is expressed mainly in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule where it is considered to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption. Phosphorylation profiling has revealed that SGLT2 exists in a phosphorylated state in the rat renal proximal tubule cortex, so we decided to investigate the regulation of human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) by protein kinases. hSGLT2 was expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, and the activity of the protein was measured using radiotracer and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology assays before and after activation of protein kinases. 8-Bromo-adenosine cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) was used to activate protein kinase A, and sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) was used to activate protein kinase C (PKC). 8-Br-cAMP stimulated D-[α-methyl-(14)C]glucopyranoside ([(14)C]α-MDG) uptake and Na(+)-glucose currents by 200% and DOG increased [(14)C]α-MDG uptake and Na(+)-glucose currents by 50%. In both cases the increase in SGLT2 activity was marked by an increase in the maximum rate of transport with no change in glucose affinity. These effects were completely negated by mutation of serine 624 to alanine. Insulin induced a 250% increase in Na(+)-glucose transport by wild-type but not S624A SGLT2. Parallel studies confirmed that the activity of hSGLT1 was regulated by PKA and PKC due to changes in the number of transporters in the cell membrane. hSGLT1 was relatively insensitive to insulin. We conclude that hSGLT1 and hSGLT2 are regulated by different mechanisms and suggest that insulin is an SGLT2 agonist in vivo.