Exposure of the human body to professional and domestic induction cooktops compared to the basic restrictions

Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Dec;33(8):695-705. doi: 10.1002/bem.21739. Epub 2012 Jun 1.


We investigated whether domestic and professional induction cooktops comply with the basic restrictions defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Based on magnetic field measurements, a generic numerical model of an induction cooktop was derived in order to model user exposure. The current density induced in the user was simulated for various models and distances. We also determined the exposure of the fetus and of young children. While most measured cooktops comply with the public exposure limits at the distance specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (standard IEC 62233), the majority exceeds them at closer distances, some of them even the occupational limits. The maximum current density in the tissue of the user significantly exceeds the basic restrictions for the general public, reaching the occupational level. The exposure of the brains of young children reaches the order of magnitude of the limits for the general public. For a generic worst-case cooktop compliant with the measurement standards, the current density exceeds the 1998 ICNIRP basic restrictions by up to 24 dB or a factor of 16. The brain tissue of young children can be overexposed by 6 dB or a factor of 2. The exposure of the tissue of the central nervous system of the fetus can exceed the limits for the general public if the mother is exposed at occupational levels. This demonstrates that the methodology for testing induction cooktops according to IEC 62233 contradicts the basic restrictions. This evaluation will be extended considering

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Burden
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cooking / instrumentation*
  • Cooking / standards*
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Environmental Exposure / standards*
  • Female
  • Heating / instrumentation*
  • Heating / standards*
  • Housing*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Pregnancy
  • Reference Standards