Eumycetoma is caused by different fungi. Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella grisae, and Scedosporium apiospermum are the most common causative agents. This disease is more frequent on the lower extremities but can also be present in other areas. The diagnosis is made by direct microscopic examination and histologic study, which should show hyphae and vesicles characteristic of the fungi. Etiologic identification of the species of the fungus is sometimes difficult by culture and biopsy specimen; in these cases, molecular techniques can help to identify the infecting organism. Treatment has been with amphotericin B, which is now seldom used due to its side effects and limited success. The best therapeutic choice is surgical removal of the lesion, followed by medical treatment. This includes antifungals such as the azoles, ketoconazole and itraconazole; in resistant cases, posaconazole and voriconazole are currently recommended. In particular, the combination of terbinafine and itraconazole can elicit a good result in some cases.
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