In the face of the current obesity epidemic, the nature of the relationship between overnutrition and type 2 diabetes is of great importance. Obesity can be considered a state of excessive insulin action that elicits a series of cellular homeostatic responses, producing systemic insulin resistance. These responses occur in four steps: homologous desensitization to insulin action, leptin secretion, inflammation, and, finally, a counter-inflammatory phase that serves to conserve energy storage. The molecular mechanisms underlying these steps are discussed in the context of potential new therapeutic approaches.
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