Introduction: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a thrombotic microangiopathy. Clopidogrel, a recently developed platelet aggregation inhibitor, has not been previously reported as a treatment for this illness. Our study's objective was to explore the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel in children with diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all children (≤ 18 years) hospitalized with diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Outcomes in clopidogrel treated children were described. In subgroup analysis, outcomes were compared to those untreated with platelet aggregation inhibitors.
Results: Of 72 children with diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome, 88% were treated with platelet aggregation inhibitors (clopidogrel 56%, sulfinpyrazone 19%, dipyridamole 13%). The median age of clopidogrel treated children was 5 years; 40% were male. Initial median hemoglobin, platelet count, and serum creatinine were 10.1g/dL, 53 × 10(3)/μL, and 2.3mg/dL respectively. Clopidogrel (median dose 1mg/kg/d) was given for a median of 4 days (range 1-15). Other therapies included erythropoietin (98%), red blood cell transfusions (80%), diuretics (58%), anti-hypertensive agents (45%), and dialysis (33%). The median hospital length of stay was 9 days (range 3-26). Three children had bleeding complications (epistaxis/hematemesis). The risk of chronic kidney disease was 5% and death 2.5%. In subgroup analysis, median duration of dialysis was 11 days in thirteen clopidogrel treated children compared to 21 days in five untreated patients (P=0.04).
Conclusions: Children with diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome treated with clopidogrel have outcomes comparable to untreated patients. Bleeding complications may occur.
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