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Review
. 2012 Jun 16;379(9833):2279-90.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60283-9. Epub 2012 Jun 9.

Prediabetes: A High-Risk State for Diabetes Development

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Free PMC article
Review

Prediabetes: A High-Risk State for Diabetes Development

Adam G Tabák et al. Lancet. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycaemia) is a high-risk state for diabetes that is defined by glycaemic variables that are higher than normal, but lower than diabetes thresholds. 5-10% of people per year with prediabetes will progress to diabetes, with the same proportion converting back to normoglycaemia. Prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide and experts have projected that more than 470 million people will have prediabetes by 2030. Prediabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction-abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Observational evidence shows associations between prediabetes and early forms of nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, small fibre neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and increased risk of macrovascular disease. Multifactorial risk scores using non-invasive measures and blood-based metabolic traits, in addition to glycaemic values, could optimise estimation of diabetes risk. For prediabetic individuals, lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention, with evidence of a 40-70% relative-risk reduction. Accumulating data also show potential benefits from pharmacotherapy.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest Statement

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The number of people with IGT (in millions) by region among adults aged 20–79 years for the years 2010 and 2030
Figure 2
Figure 2
Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose, Homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) and HOMA β-cell function (HOMA2-%B) trajectories before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the British Whitehall II study Redrawn with permission from
Figure 3
Figure 3
Hazard ratios for vascular death according to baseline levels of fasting glucose Glucose levels for participants without a known history of diabetes at baseline were classified as <4.5, 4.5 to less than 5.0, 5.0 to less than 5.5, 5.5 to less than 6.0, 6.0 to less than 6.5, 6.5 to less than 7.0, 7.0 to less than 7.5 mmol/l. Reproduced with permission from

Comment in

  • Prediabetes and the risk of diabetes.
    Deedwania P, Ahmed A. Deedwania P, et al. Lancet. 2012 Oct 6;380(9849):1225; author reply 1226. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61705-X. Lancet. 2012. PMID: 23040849 No abstract available.
  • Prediabetes and the risk of diabetes.
    McMurray JJ, Haffner SM, Califf RM, Holman RR. McMurray JJ, et al. Lancet. 2012 Oct 6;380(9849):1225-6; author reply 1226. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61706-1. Lancet. 2012. PMID: 23040850 No abstract available.
  • Prediabetes and the risk of diabetes.
    Chiolero A, Paccaud F. Chiolero A, et al. Lancet. 2012 Oct 6;380(9849):1225; author reply 1226. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61704-8. Lancet. 2012. PMID: 23040851 No abstract available.

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