Striatal mechanisms underlying movement, reinforcement, and punishment

Physiology (Bethesda). 2012 Jun;27(3):167-77. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00004.2012.


Direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons are known to exert opposing control over motor output. In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate punishment and aversion.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cerebral Cortex / physiology
  • Corpus Striatum / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Movement / physiology*
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Punishment*
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*