An imbalance of commensal bacteria and their gene products underlies mucosal and, in particular, gastrointestinal inflammation and a predisposition to cancer. Lactobacillus species have received considerable attention as examples of beneficial microbiota. We have reported previously that deletion of the phosphoglycerol transferase gene that is responsible for lipoteichoic acid (LTA) biosynthesis in Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCK2025) rendered this bacterium able to significantly protect mice against induced colitis when delivered orally. Here we report that oral treatment with LTA-deficient NCK2025 normalizes innate and adaptive pathogenic immune responses and causes regression of established colonic polyps. This study reveals the proinflammatory role of LTA and the ability of LTA-deficient L. acidophilus to regulate inflammation and protect against colonic polyposis in a unique mouse model.