A stud dog was presented for acquired infertility. Haematospermia and teratozoospermia were found on two ejaculates 2 weeks apart. A presumptive diagnosis of prostatitis was made follo-wing ultrasound examination. An ultrasound-guided needle core biopsy was performed under general anaesthesia, revealing a mild chronic macrophagic and plasma cell prostatitis with intracytoplasmic amastigotes consistent with Leishmania spp. infection. Presence of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani or Leishmania chagasi was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in seminal plasma. Serology and serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the diagnosis of a subclinical active systemic leishmaniasis. A meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol treatment was given which clearly improved within 3 months both general condition and the quality of sperm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a prostatitis secondary to a Leishmania spp. infection. Subclinical systemic leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infertility in dogs suffering from semen alterations.
© 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.