Purpose of review: This review discusses the latest approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with strongyloidiasis, with an emphasis on infection in the immunocompromised host and the risk for disseminated strongyloidiasis.
Recent findings: The differences in acute, chronic, accelerated autoinfection, and disseminated disease in Strongyloides stercoralis infection are explored with particular emphasis on early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The goals of treatment are investigated for the different infection states. Predisposing risks for dissemination are delineated, and the roles played for newer diagnostics in the identification of at-risk individuals are detailed.
Summary: The use of newer diagnostic tests and broader screening of immunocompromised patients from Strongyloides-endemic areas is of paramount importance, particularly if prevention of life-threatening dissemination is the goal.