Eukaryotic cells synthesize multiple classes of lipids by distinct metabolic pathways in order to generate membranes with optimal physical and chemical properties. As a result, complex regulatory networks are required in all organisms to maintain lipid and membrane homeostasis as well as to rapidly and efficiently respond to cellular stress. The unicellular nature of yeast makes it particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and yeast has evolved elaborate signaling pathways to maintain lipid homeostasis. In this article we highlight the recent advances that have been made using the budding and fission yeasts and we discuss potential roles for the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the SREBP-Scap pathways in coordinate regulation of multiple lipid classes.
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