The cybernetic rehabilitation aid: preliminary results for wrist and elbow motions in healthy subjects

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2012 Sep;20(5):697-707. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2198496. Epub 2012 Jun 8.


This paper proposes the cybernetic rehabilitation aid (CRA) based on the concept of direct teaching using tactile feedback with electromyography (EMG)-based motor skill evaluation. Evaluation and teaching of motor skills are two important aspects of rehabilitation training, and the CRA provides novel and effective solutions to potentially solve the difficulties inherent in these two processes within a single system. In order to evaluate motor skills, EMG signals measured from a patient are analyzed using a log-linearized Gaussian mixture network that can classify motion patterns and compute the degree of similarity between the patient's measured EMG patterns and the desired pattern provided by the therapist. Tactile stimulators are used to convey motion instructions from the therapist or the system to the patient, and a rehabilitation robot can also be integrated into the developed prototype to increase its rehabilitation capacity. A series of experiments performed using the developed prototype demonstrated that the CRA can work as a human-human, human-computer and human-machine system. The experimental results indicated that the healthy (able-bodied) subjects were able to follow the desired muscular contraction levels instructed by the therapist or the system and perform proper joint motion without relying on visual feedback.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biofeedback, Psychology / instrumentation
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / methods
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / physiology
  • Cybernetics / instrumentation*
  • Cybernetics / methods
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Elbow Joint / physiology*
  • Electromyography / methods*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Humans
  • Man-Machine Systems
  • Movement / physiology
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology*
  • Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods
  • Pilot Projects
  • Rehabilitation / instrumentation
  • Rehabilitation / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Robotics / instrumentation
  • Robotics / methods
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Therapy, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*
  • Therapy, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Touch
  • User-Computer Interface
  • Wrist Joint / physiology*