New insights on the anti-inflammatory effect of some Egyptian plants against renal dysfunction induced by cyclosporine

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012 Apr;16(4):455-61.


Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them in improving the renal dysfunction induced in rats by the cyclosporine.

Design: Sixty female albino rats were divided into six groups: healthy control rats, cyclosporine injected rats (positive control), other groups were injected by cyclosporine for 7 days and then diet was supplemented with either fennel, doum, carob or mixture of them. After 45 days of supplementation, rats were scarified. Serum and urinary samples were obtained for different biochemical analysis.

Methods: The analysis included the determination of creatinine levels in serum and urinary samples, serum ammonia, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), urinary N-acetyl-beta D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta2 microglobulin as well as calculating the creatinine clearance. Also, an histopathological examination for the kidney tissue was performed.

Results: The present study showed that cyclosporine induced the nephrotoxicity as appeared by elevation of serum and urinary levels of creatinine, urinary level of beta2 microglobulin, serum levels of ammonia, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha and the NAG level while decreased the creatinine clearance. Addition of fennel, carob, doum or mixture of them significantly improved the kidney functions. Moreover, anti-inflammatory status of animals injected with cyclosporine and supplemented with fennel, carob, doum and mixture of them, showed a significant amelioration in the kidney functions as compared to animals injected with the cyclosporine only. Histopathological investigation of kidney tissue of rat treated with the cyclosporine showed a moderate degree of renal damages. While, groups fed on fennel, carob, doum or mixture of them showed a great improvement in the kidney morphological structure.

Conclusions: Diet supplementation with fennel, carob, doum have a promising anti-inflammatory influence on attenuating the complications associated with the renal dysfunction.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Arecaceae*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Cyclosporine*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Egypt
  • Fabaceae*
  • Female
  • Foeniculum*
  • Fruit
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced
  • Kidney Diseases / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Kidney Diseases / urine
  • Plant Preparations / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Seeds
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Plant Preparations
  • Cyclosporine