Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population

Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2011;76(3):551-4.


Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed production neutralized the decreasing effect of pre-planting irrigation and two-row planting of maize on weed seed bank population.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Agricultural Irrigation
  • Agriculture / methods*
  • Nitrogen / metabolism*
  • Plant Weeds / classification
  • Plant Weeds / growth & development*
  • Plant Weeds / metabolism
  • Seeds / classification
  • Seeds / growth & development*
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Weed Control
  • Zea mays / growth & development*
  • Zea mays / metabolism


  • Nitrogen