Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis)

Food Sci Technol Int. 2012 Jun;18(3):241-50. doi: 10.1177/1082013211415173.


The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity.

MeSH terms

  • Emulsifying Agents / chemistry*
  • Emulsions / chemistry
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Plant Gums / chemistry*
  • Plant Stems / chemistry*
  • Prunus / chemistry*


  • Emulsifying Agents
  • Emulsions
  • Plant Gums