Metabolic fingerprinting of biological tissues has become an important area of research, particularly in the biomarker discovery field. Methods have inherent analytical variation, and new approaches are necessary to ensure that the vast numbers of intact metabolites present in biofluids are detected. Here, we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE) method and a direct injection method that shows the total number of features recovered to be over 4500 from a single 20 μL plasma aliquot. By applying a one-step extraction consisting of a lipophilic and hydrophilic layer within a single vial insert, we showed that analytical variation was decreased. This was achieved by reducing sample preparation stages including procedures of drying and transfers. The two phases in the vial, upper and lower, underwent HPLC-QTOF analysis on individually customized LC gradients in both positive and negative ionization modes. A 60 min lipid profiling HPLC-QTOF method for the lipophilic phase was specifically developed, enabling the separation and putative identification of fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. The aqueous phase of the extract underwent direct injection onto a 45 min gradient, enabling the detection of both polarities. The IVDE method was compared to two traditional extraction methods. The first method was a two-step ether evaporation and IPA resuspension, and the second method was a methanol precipitation typically used in fingerprinting studies. The IVDE provided a 378% increase in reproducible features when compared to evaporation and a 269% increase when compared to the precipitate and inject method. As a proof of concept, the method was applied to an animal model of diabetes. A 2-fold increase in discriminant metabolites was found when comparing diabetic and control rats with IVDE. These discriminant metabolites accounted for around 600 entities, out of which 388 were identified in available databases.