Synergistic inhibition of interleukin-6 production in adipose stem cells by tart cherry anthocyanins and atorvastatin

Phytomedicine. 2012 Jul 15;19(10):878-81. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.05.001. Epub 2012 Jun 14.


Studies have shown positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the development of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease by activating C-reactive protein (CRP). Both atorvastatin calcium (lipitor) as well as flavonoid rich fruit such as tart cherry demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether tart cherry extract or specific anthocyanins contained in the tart cherry show synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with lipitor. Results showed that LPS-induced adipose stem cell secretion of IL-6 reduced with the addition of tart cherry extract, a mixture of tart cherry anthocyanins, and pure tart cherry cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, lipitor and C3G exhibited synergistic effects in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion from adipose stem cells. In conclusion, these results support potential benefits of using dietary phytochemicals in conjunction with pharmacological therapies to decrease adipose inflammation, drug doses, and ultimately, drug-induced adverse effects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / drug effects*
  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology
  • Anthocyanins / therapeutic use*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Atorvastatin
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Synergism
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Fruit
  • Glucosides / pharmacology
  • Glucosides / therapeutic use*
  • Heptanoic Acids / pharmacology
  • Heptanoic Acids / therapeutic use*
  • Herb-Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism*
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Prunus / chemistry*
  • Pyrroles / pharmacology
  • Pyrroles / therapeutic use*
  • Stem Cells / drug effects


  • Anthocyanins
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Glucosides
  • Heptanoic Acids
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Pyrroles
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • Atorvastatin