A key feature of innate immunity is the ability to recognize and respond to potential pathogens in a highly sensitive and specific manner. In plants, the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) elicits a defense programme known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Although only a handful of PAMP-PRR pairs have been defined, all known PRRs are modular transmembrane proteins containing ligand-binding ectodomains. It is becoming clear that PRRs do not act alone but rather function as part of multi-protein complexes at the plasma membrane. Recent studies describing the molecular interactions and protein modifications that occur between PRRs and their regulatory proteins have provided important mechanistic insight into how plants avoid infection and achieve immunity.
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