Chemoradiotherapy is considered a standard neoadjuvant therapy for advanced esophageal cancer in western countries. However, in Japan, experts usually do not indicate preoperative radiotherapy for resectable diseases, considering the excellent local disease control with surgery alone and postoperative morbidity related to radiation. The benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using the FP regimen has been demonstrated by the latest trial named JCOG9907, and preoperative use of the FP regimen is now increasing in Japan. Although the FP regimen in a neoadjuvant setting may become a standard care, the optimal stage selection for neoadjuvant chemotherapy is still controversial. In addition, the DCF regimen, known as a stronger and more effective regimen for advanced disease, is reported as a more attractive regimen, also in neoadjuvant settings.