Regulated exocytosis requires that the assembly of the basic membrane fusion machinery is temporarily arrested. Synchronized membrane fusion is then caused by a specific trigger--a local rise of the Ca(2+) concentration. Using reconstituted giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), we have analysed the role of complexin and membrane-anchored synaptotagmin 1 in arresting and synchronizing fusion by lipid-mixing and cryo-electron microscopy. We find that they mediate the formation and consumption of docked small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) via the following sequence of events: Synaptotagmin 1 mediates v-SNARE-SUV docking to t-SNARE-GUVs in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. Complexin blocks vesicle consumption, causing accumulation of docked vesicles. Together with synaptotagmin 1, complexin synchronizes and stimulates rapid fusion of accumulated docked vesicles in response to physiological Ca(2+) concentrations. Thus, the reconstituted assay resolves both the stimulatory and inhibitory function of complexin and mimics key aspects of synaptic vesicle fusion.