Background: The modalities and results of surgical intervention in the lower extremity in children with Morquio syndrome type A [mucopolysaccharidosis-IV (MPS-IVA)] have not been well described. The aims of this study are to define the lower extremity deformities, and describe the results of intervention in MPS-IVA patients.
Methods: Retrospective chart and radiograph review of 23 MPS-IVA patients with a minimum follow-up of >2 years. Patients were divided into no intervention and surgical groups. Demographic data, surgical details, clinical results, and complications were recorded. Standard lower extremity radiographic measurements made on standing radiographs at initial presentation, preoperatively (in surgical group), and at the final follow-up were used to study the deformities and effects of hip, knee, and ankle surgery. Descriptive statistics were performed.
Results: There were 11 boys and 12 girls. The average age at presentation was 6.8±3.4 years and at the last visit was 13.5±5 years with a mean follow-up of 6.7±3.7 years. Progressive hip subluxation, genu valgum, and ankle valgus were observed in all patients without intervention. Twenty patients had a total of 159 lower extremity surgical procedures (average, 8 procedures per patient). There were 61 hip, 78 knee, and 20 ankle procedures. Surgery resulted in improvement of the center edge angle, femoral head coverage, lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle, tibiofemoral angle, and lateral distal tibial angle. Mechanical axis of the lower extremities improved after intervention. Six patients (12 hips) had recurrence of hip subluxation after acetabular osteotomies and/or femoral varus derotation osteotomy, and 8 patients (16 knees) had postoperative genu valgum recurrence requiring subsequent intervention. There was no recurrent hip subluxation after shelf acetabuloplasty.
Conclusions: Progressive hip subluxation, genu valgum, and ankle valgus were seen and often needed surgery. After shelf acetabuloplasty and varus derotation osteotomy, there was no recurrent hip subluxation. Recurrence after genu valgum correction was common.
Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.