Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: a cross-sectional study

BMC Public Health. 2012 Jun 18;12:450. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-450.


Background: Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents' drinking water choices.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents' water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test.

Results: The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one's health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents.

Conclusions: Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • China
  • Choice Behavior
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Drinking Water / microbiology
  • Drinking Water / standards*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Housing / standards*
  • Humans
  • Hygiene / standards*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Drinking Water