Intranasal vaccination with an adjuvanted Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antigen-specific B memory responses in human adult volunteers

Clin Immunol. 2012 Aug;144(2):98-108. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2012.05.006. Epub 2012 May 24.


Noroviruses are the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. No vaccines are currently available. An intranasally delivered Norwalk (NV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was recently shown to be well tolerated, immunogenic and to protect against infection in Phase 1 studies. Here, we examined B memory (B(M)) responses in volunteers who received the highest dosage levels of the NV-VLP vaccine (50 μg and 100 μg). We measured the frequency of NV-specific IgG and IgA-secreting B(M) cells in peripheral blood and the level of antibodies produced by these cells in culture. All subjects immunized with 100 μg of the NV-VLP vaccine and 90% of those who received 50 μg had significant IgA or IgG B(M) responses. The B(M) cell frequencies correlated with serum antibody levels and mucosally-primed antibody-secreting cell responses. This is the first demonstration of dose-dependent, functional B(M) responses in humans immunized intranasally with a NV-VLP vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin A / metabolism
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin G / metabolism
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Middle Aged
  • Norwalk virus / immunology*
  • Phenotype
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle / administration & dosage*
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
  • Viral Vaccines