Purpose: Osteoclasts (OCs) are multinucleated giant cells that resorb bone matrix. Accelerated bone destruction by OCs might cause several metabolic bone-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss. D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) is a prominent component of dietary legumes and is actively converted to D-chiro-inositol, which is a putative insulin-like mediator. In this study, we analyzed the effect of D-chiro-inositol on OC differentiation.
Methods: To analyze the role of D-chiro-inositol on OC differentiation, we examined OC differentiation by the three types of osteoclastogenesis cultures with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and solution assay. Then, we carried out cell fusion assay with purified TRAP(+) mononuclear OC precursors. Finally, we analyzed the effect of D-chiro-inositol on OC maker expression in response to the regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1).
Results: We demonstrated that D-chiro-inositol acts as an inhibitor of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced OC differentiation. The formation of multinucleated OCs by cell-cell fusion is reduced by treatment with D-chiro-inositol in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that D-chiro-inositol inhibits the expression of several osteoclastogenic genes by down-regulating NFATc1.
Conclusions: We have shown that D-chiro-inositol is negatively involved in osteoclastogenesis through the inhibition of multinucleated OC formation by cell-cell fusion. The expression of NFATc1 was significantly down-regulated by D-chiro-inositol in OCs and consequently, the expression of OC marker genes was significantly reduced. Hence, these results show that D-chiro-inositol might be a good candidate to treat inflammatory bone-related diseases or secondary osteoporosis in diabetes mellitus.