Using a training-of-trainers approach and proactive technical assistance to bring evidence based programs to scale: an operationalization of the interactive systems framework's support system

Am J Community Psychol. 2012 Dec;50(3-4):415-27. doi: 10.1007/s10464-012-9526-6.


Bringing evidence based programs to scale was a major initial impetus for the development of the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF). The ISF demonstrates the importance of the Support System in facilitating the uptake of innovations in the community (the Delivery System). Two strategies that members of the Support System commonly use are training-of-trainers (TOT) models and technical assistance (TA). In this article, we focus on the role of the Support System in bringing evidence-based programs (EBPs) to scale in the Delivery System using a case example, with special attention on two strategies employed by Support Systems-training-of-trainers (TOT) and proactive technical assistance. We then report on findings from a case example from the Promoting Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention project that furthers our conceptualization of these strategies and the evidence base for them. We also report on the limitations in the literature regarding research on TOTs and proactive TA and provide suggestions for future research on TOTs and proactive TA that will enhance the science and practice of support in the ISF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Health Services*
  • Evidence-Based Practice / education*
  • Evidence-Based Practice / methods
  • Evidence-Based Practice / organization & administration
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Models, Educational
  • Models, Organizational
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Adolescence / prevention & control*
  • Program Development*
  • Teaching / methods*
  • Teaching / organization & administration