Enhanced S-cone syndrome with preserved macular structure and severely depressed retinal function

Doc Ophthalmol. 2012 Oct;125(2):161-8. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9337-y. Epub 2012 Jun 19.


We present ophthalmic features and genetic analysis findings of a 44-year-old croatian patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS). Complete ophthalmic examination, Ishihara colour vision test, dark adaptometry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence imaging, Goldmann visual field and automated perimetry, full-field electroretinography (ERG), multifocal ERG, S-cone ERG and ON-OFF ERG were performed. Mutation screening of the NR2E3 gene, which encodes a photoreceptor-specific orphan nuclear receptor, was performed with polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. The patient has good visual acuity and normal colour vision. Fundus examination showed normal posterior pole and nummular pigment depositions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium in the mid-periphery of the retina. The SD-OCT images showed normal macular structure and thickness. The ERG showed characteristic findings: photopic and scotopic responses to the same stimulus had a similar waveform and were dominated by short-wavelength-sensitive mechanisms. Mutation analysis revealed the known NR2E3 mutation c.481delA (p.Thr161HisFsX18) and the novel NR2E3 variant c.1120C > T (p.Leu374Phe). To the best of our knowledge, this is the only ESCS patient older than 40 years who phenotypically has preserved macular structure, good central visual acuity and severely depressed full-field ERG as well as the first reported patient with NR2E3 mutation from Croatia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Electroretinography
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Macula Lutea / pathology
  • Macula Lutea / physiopathology*
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / pathology*
  • Retinal Degeneration / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Degeneration / physiopathology
  • Syndrome
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Visual Acuity*
  • Visual Field Tests