Serum autoantibodies, directed against oncogenic proteins, have been frequently detected in the sera of patients with breast cancer. It is unknown whether serum antibodies that are identified in patients with established disease could also be detected in patients with newly diagnosed disease or even predate the diagnosis of breast cancer. Using sera collected at the time of treatment, at the time of diagnosis, or before the time of diagnosis, the current study aimed to address the temporal relationship between breast cancer development and serum antibody response. Starting from serum antibodies to eight known breast cancer antigens, we first identified four serum antibodies, HER2/neu, p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and cyclin B1, which are significantly increased in the sera collected from patients with breast cancer at the time of treatment. These antibodies were also elevated in breast cancer sera collected at the time of diagnosis. Finally, comparison of antibody responses in prediagnostic samples from women before the development of breast cancer and in controls showed that antibodies to the HER2/neu and p53 can be detected in sera that were collected on average more than 150 days before a breast cancer diagnosis. These results showed that serum autoantibodies commonly reported in sera from patients with established disease can also be detected in prediagnostic sera and may be useful for the early detection of breast cancer.