Stroke and Stroke-like Episodes in Muscle Disease

Open Neurol J. 2012;6:26-36. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01206010026. Epub 2012 May 18.

Abstract

Background: Though not obvious at a first glance, myopathies may be associated with ischemic stroke. Stroke-like episodes resemble ischemic stroke only to some extent but are a unique feature of certain mitochondrial disorders with a pathogenesis at variance from that of ischemic stroke. Only limited data are available about ischemic stroke in pri-mary myopathies and the management of stroke-like episodes in mitochondrial disorders. This review aims to summarize and discuss current knowledge about stroke in myopathies and to delineate stroke-like episodes from ischemic stroke.

Methods: Literature review via PubMED using the search terms "stroke", "cerebrovascular", "ischemic event", "stroke-like episode", "stroke-mimic", "mitochondrial disorder".

Results: Stroke in myopathies is most frequently cardioembolic due to atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, dilated cardio-myopathy, or left-ventricular hypertrabeculation (noncompaction). The second most frequent cause of stroke in myopathies is angiopathy from atherosclerosis or vasculitis, which may be a feature of inflammatory myopathies. Athero-sclerosis may either result from classical risk factors, such as diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlpidemia, or smoking, associated with muscle disease, or may be an inherent feature of a mitochondrial disorder. In case of severe heart failure from cardiomyopathy as a manifestation of muscle disease low flow infarcts may occur. Thrombophilic stroke has been described in polymyositis and dermatomyositis in association with anti-phospholipid syndrome. Stroke-like episodes occur particularly in mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-likeepisode syndrome but rarely also in Leigh-syndrome and other mitochondrial disorders. Stroke-like episodes are at variance from ischemic stroke, pathogenically, clinically and on imaging. They may be the manifestation of a vascular, metabolic or epileptic process and present with predominantly vasogenic but also cytotoxic edema on MRI. Differentiation between ischemic stroke and stroke-like episodes is essential in terms of management and prognosis. Management of ischemic stroke in patients with myopathy is not at variance from the treatment of ischemic stroke in non-myopathic patients. There is no standardized treatment of stroke-like episodes but there is increasing evidence that these patients profit from the administration of L-arginine and conse-quent antiepileptic treatment if associated with seizure activity.

Conclusions: Ischemic stroke may be a complication of myopathy and needs to be delineated from stroke-like episodes, which are unique to mitochondrial disorders, particularly mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-likeepisode syndrome. Ischemic stroke in myopathies is most frequently cardioembolic and treatment is not at variance from non-myopathic ischemic stroke. Treatment of stroke-like episodes is not standardized but seems to respond to L-arginine and adequate antiepileptic treatment.

Keywords: Cerebral infarction; MELAS-syndrome; atrial fibrillation; cardiomyopathy; genetics; ischemic stroke; neuromuscular disorder; noncompaction; stroke-like episode..