Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) has emerged as a potential target for drug development as a 5-fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy. We describe the design and synthesis of a novel class of human dUTPase inhibitors, 1,2,3-triazole-containing uracil derivatives. Compound 45a, which possesses 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole moiety that mimics the amide bond of tert-amide-containing inhibitor 6b locked in a cis conformation showed potent inhibitory activity, and its structure-activity relationship studies led us to the discovery of highly potent inhibitors 48c and 50c (IC(50) = ~0.029 μM). These derivatives dramatically enhanced the growth inhibition activity of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine against HeLa S3 cells in vitro (EC(50) = ~0.05 μM). In addition, compound 50c exhibited a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile as a result of the introduction of a benzylic hydroxy group and significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil against human breast cancer MX-1 xenograft model in mice. These data indicate that 50c is a promising candidate for combination cancer chemotherapies with TS inhibitors.