Restenosis is a critical complication of angioplasty and stenting. Restenosis is multifactorial, involving endothelial injury, inflammation, platelet activation, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Thus, dietary strategies to prevent restenosis likely require the use of more than one agent. Resveratrol (R) and quercetin (Q) are polyphenols that are known to exhibit vascular protective effects. We tested whether R and Q administered in the diet interact to inhibit vessel stenosis in mice with a carotid injury. B6.129 mice were administered a high-fat diet containing 21% fat and 0.2% cholesterol along with R (25 mg/kg), Q (10 mg/kg), or R + Q for 2 wk. A carotid injury was induced and the mice were again administered the enriched diet for 2 wk. Compared with the controls, R significantly decreased stenosis, assessed as an intima:media ratio, by 76%. Although Q treatment alone exhibited no effect, it potentiated the effect of R in that treatment with R + Q significantly decreased the intima:media ratio by 94%. Moreover, this effect was greater than that of R treatment alone (P < 0.05). Although treatments with R, Q, and R + Q significantly affected platelet activation and endothelial function, the responses observed for R + Q were less than additive. Specifically, the effects of R + Q were less than the sum of effects for treatments with R and Q alone. In contrast, treatment with R + Q exhibited more-than-additive effects on inflammatory markers and significant interactions between R and Q were observed. The presence of synergy between R and Q was thus tested in cultures of VSMC and macrophages. Isobolographic analysis revealed that 2:1 molar ratios of R:Q exhibited synergistic inhibition of VSMC proliferation and macrophage chemotaxis. In conclusion, in combination, R and Q can interact to reduce the extent of restenosis, perhaps due to their synergistic inhibition of VSMC proliferation and inflammation.