Veterinarians need to be prepared to provide nutritional advice for healthy pets as well as for pets that are ill. Before instituting a dietary change in any patient, especially an older dog or cat, a nutritional evaluation should be completed. This should include an evaluation of the patient, the current diet, and feeding management. Diets should be appropriate to the unique needs of the individual patient. Many diseases in senior pets are “diet-sensitive” meaning that diet can play a role in managing the effects of the disease. Common examples discussed include cognitive dysfunction of aging, osteoarthritis, and obesity.