Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of strawberry and mulberry fruit polysaccharides on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through modulating pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion and Bcl-2/Bak protein ratio

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Sep;50(9):3032-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.06.016. Epub 2012 Jun 18.


This study is the first to isolate strawberry (SP) and mulberry fruit polysaccharides (MP) and assess their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary macrophages. Pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine levels secreted by LPS-stimulated macrophages cultured with SP and MP for 48 h were determined using ELISA method to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of SP and MP. The Bcl-2/Bak (anti-/pro-apoptotic) protein levels in the cells were determined using Western blotting method to evaluate anti-apoptotic effects of SP and MP. The results showed that the maximum absorption peak of SP and MP appeared at 240 nm with a small shoulder around 280∼310 nm, suggesting that SP and MP might be glycoproteins. SP- and MP-treatment significantly (P<0.05) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased, suggesting that SP and MP have anti-inflammation potential via modulating pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion profiles. Both SP and MP modulated Bak and Bcl-2 protein levels in the cells, suggesting that the SP and MP protected LPS-stimulated macrophages from apoptotic cell death. A negative correlation between cytokine secretion levels and Bcl-2 protein levels suggested that pro-inflammatory IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines decreased Bcl-2 levels in the LPS-stimulated macrophages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Female
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Macrophage Activation / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Bak1 protein, mouse
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Polysaccharides
  • bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein