Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside, a typical anthocyanin, exhibits antilipolytic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during hyperglycemia: involvement of FoxO1-mediated transcription of adipose triglyceride lipase

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Sep;50(9):3040-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.06.015. Epub 2012 Jun 18.


Elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to potentially link obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces FFAs availability and improves insulin sensitivity. Anthocyanins from different plant foods were shown to improve hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in vivo. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G), a typical anthocyanin was selected to examine its in vitro effects on high-glucose-induced lipolysis in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Incubation with C3G efficiently inhibited FFAs and glycerol release from the adipocytes during hyperglycemia in a dose- and time-dependent manner. C3G treatment also increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase, decreased the activity of glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate aminotransferase, reduced cellular UDP-N-acetylglucosamine production, thereby suppressing the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In addition, C3G attenuated high-glucose-promoted O-glycosylation of transcription factor FoxO1, resulting in decreased expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which anthocyanin regulates FoxO1-mediated transcription of ATGL and thus inhibits adipocyte lipolysis, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in diabetes-associated hyperlipidemia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3-L1 Cells
  • Acylation
  • Adenylate Kinase / metabolism
  • Adipocytes / cytology
  • Adipocytes / drug effects*
  • Adipocytes / enzymology
  • Animals
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Forkhead Box Protein O1
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / physiology*
  • Glucose / administration & dosage
  • Glucosides / pharmacology*
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism*
  • Lipase / genetics*
  • Lipolysis / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription, Genetic / physiology


  • Anthocyanins
  • DNA Primers
  • Forkhead Box Protein O1
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Foxo1 protein, mouse
  • Glucosides
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • Adenylate Kinase
  • Lipase
  • Glucose