Objective: The aim was to provide guidelines for evaluation, treatment, and genetic testing for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
Participants: The group, which comprised 10 experts, including physicians, surgeons, and geneticists from international centers, received no corporate funding or remuneration.
Process: Guidelines were developed by reviews of peer-reviewed publications; a draft was prepared, reviewed, and rigorously revised at several stages; and agreed-upon revisions were incorporated.
Conclusions: MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder that is due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610-amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, meningiomas, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life expectancy, and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to those for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by presymptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1 tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multidisciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.