Despite recent achievements such as home glucose monitoring and intensified injection regimens or insulin pumps, the metabolic care in diabetic patients is still mostly insufficient. One approach of further improving the management is the application of computer-aided procedures to estimate individually the optimal regimes. To accomplish this, a model-based strategy was developed which permits the prospective assessment of the metabolic outcome. This strategy comprises the following components: (1) a validated model of the physiological glucose-insulin regulatory system; (2) a procedure for identifying the metabolic situation of a given patient in terms of the model parameters; (3) methods of estimating the pharmacokinetics of insulin and its effect on glycemia, the absorption profiles of ingested glucose equivalents, and the effect of exercise as expressed in equivalents of insulin action; (4) computer procedures of prospective simulation of glycemic profiles around the day under the influence of selected or proposed therapeutic regimes. The entire method has been validated in C-peptide negative type I diabetic patients by comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions from model-based simulations over up to one year. This model-based simulation may be applied by ambulatory patients together with their physicians as a decision-support system in selecting appropriate individually suited regimes.