Innate and adaptive immune cells can intervene during tumor progression at different stages including initiation, angiogenesis, local spreading and distant metastasis formation. The net effect can be favorable or detrimental to tumor development, depending on the composition and activation status of the immune infiltrate. Chemokines can determine the distribution of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and also affect stroma composition. Here we consider how a complex network of chemokines plays a key role in dictating the fate of a tumor. Although the field is in its infancy, we also highlight how targeting chemokines offers a tool to modulate the tumor environment with the aim of enhancing immune-mediated rejection of cancer.
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